animation – How to have multiple CSS transitions on an element? The term “high-brightness” LED has been used to describe LEDs that have a sufficiently high luminance that viewers can’t look directly at them. Is the apparent brightness (not necessarily the luminosity) increased, decreased, or not affected by pulsing an LED at higher current and lower duty cycle? Rough explanation: Diode is powered for very short time, then is off for short time lets say 500 times a second. Figure.1: Forward Current vs. LEDs vary widely in their brightness potential, and can be "dimmed" by running at a lower current. half the value seems like a big difference, but you’ll have to remember that our eye perceives light intensities logarithmically; if doubling the intensity is 1 step then the difference between a dimly lit room (10 lux) and bright sunlight (100 000 lux) is only 13 steps. To start viewing messages, select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below. (And nevermind Shockley if you happen to have an excellent quantum-mechanical model included in the specsheet!) Since you are lowering the PWM duty cycle but raising the current, the new PWM Duty Cycle should be less then 1 but greater then 0 (implicitly convert it from a percentage to decimal) , and the ratios in current should be a positive number greater then 1. ASMT-YTD2-0BB02 Data Sheet High Brightness Tricolor PLCC6 White Surface LED Table 1. ie it is not possible to operate them in a pulsed mode at less than about 90% duty cycle and constant mean current without exceeding their rated absolute maximum currents. This is true for the most part because more current that goes to an LED will increase brightness. The effect on the LED die will be a shortening of lifetime but thi is (presumably) allowed for by th manufacturer in the specification – and required total operating lifetime is usually low. 4. The last graph you posted shows Luminous Intensity vs current and shows the LED or your vision being overloaded above 2mA. @KevinVermeer, the major item for me here is “Can pulsing allow a higher brightness with the same MTBF?” The time I suggest this trick is when you want more light from a cheaper LED but do not want to reduce the life of your LED. Compare diodes LED tape 5050, 3528 , 5630. However, I believe that any physiological effect ether way is small. Brightness vs. luminance. Enable Startup . They diodes must be operated under the correct conditions of voltage and current - they do not like over-voltage and the current must be limited. I have never seen an LED so bad. It is not realistic to control LED brightness via voltage. ie doubling current does not quite double luminous output. Far above this value, the LED will fail catastrophically, like a flashbulb. Absolute Maximum Ratings (TJ = 25°C ... ASMT-YTD2-0BB02 Data Sheet High Brightness Tricolor PLCC6 White Surface LED Figure 7: Maximum Forward Current vs. At 50 mA it delivers about 120 l/W and at 20 mA about 165 l/W. Apparently not all LEDs are made equal. A factor of 2 looks like a small but clearly noticeable step. To this end, we’ve got entire replacement LED fog light units. The voltage drop across an LED is approximately constant over a wide range of operating current; therefore, a small increase in applied voltage greatly increases the current. There are typically several of these, sufficient to provide the required light output. 1.0 I have looked at this in some detail in the past as I design LED based solar charged lights and am generally interested in LEDs. The SGM3122 is a charge pump with PWM brightness control for white LED supplies in LCD display backlight applications. Typically, the recommended current for an LED is 20 mA or less. As the current through the LED increases, the brightness also increases. If this is the case pulsing won’t get you more brightness. Hardware Design. SG Micro Corp JANUARY2013–REV.A. The luminous intensity, on the other hand, can be used to indicate the luminous flux per angular unit.The unit for luminous intensity is candela and is abbreviated as cd. Theory is important. How does this translate to light levels reaching observer after scene reflection. At 5 V and 50% duty cycle, they get a bit too toasty for longevity. To understand this better, let's use our 2x3 Super-white LED as an example. Assuming an LED is on for a constant amount of time, then the brightness is proportional to the current flowing through the diode (either linear or exponential). Basically you will need a driver per LED. A fair test is probably Ipeak x time on = constant. Constant current has a big downside though, driving an LED with constant current scales very bad to multiple LEDs. It's a sign there is a malfunction. A say 10% duty cycle would result in 10 x the current at the same voltage for this to hold. Typical ILED=11.5mA. The other reason why you current limit, is to protect the LED from a supply that has a much higher voltage than the LED's current. You can also alter the brightness of an LED at a constant current by varying the duty cycle. What you perceive is the average brightness. Determining the Brightness After these assumptions, it is obvious that the current through an LED at maximum power dissipation is inversely related to the duty cycle. Like for any other diode the voltage increases with increasing current. Are these met when illuminating real world scenes, does it matter? The difference is NOT like 200% but it is quite noticeable. High power lighting LEDs usually have figures for brightness as a function of current, and you will see this tail off a bit at the high end. Adjusting Current Value Changing the current supply to the LED can directly c ontrol the luminous intensity as shown by the graph below. [link updated 1/2016]. Note that the two strings with identical V f values have the same current flowing through them. Like Reply. Is the apparent brightness (not necessarily the luminosity) increased, decreased, or not affected by pulsing an LED at higher current and lower duty cycle? Forums. "Flux vs. current" is not linear in LEDs (see Fig. the LED is operating at maximum efficiency no matter what brightness level is used. Many manufacturers’ datasheets include a graph of forward current vs. luminous flux. LED light get brighter with more voltage – Is it true? Last edited: Sep 14, 2012. However, I haven’t found LEDs where performance increases when pulsing. Nevertheless, there are also signs of ageing here, which are called as follows: 1. Luminous intensity is another term for the brightness, but it is related to the solid angle.The luminous flux in lumens can only be used to measure the total light emitted by the lamp. "����t7%=܅��Y��|v9kj��6��Z�6;)��~�!����G���'Az��Ĭ�G���ob�IA������S3��նY�NgT]}�rݢ+���b�K���G���$x��rB����:�&��. @jsolarski: Pulse some LEDs at different duty cycles and brightnesses, and (without telling them which was which) ask people which one is brightest? Temperature for Red (1Chip On) Figure 8: Maximum Forward Current vs. This is in the range of a few Hz to low 10s of Hz. A. Thread Starter. But in the era of popularity of cheap microcontrollers it becomes easier to control LEDs with PWM -Pulse Width Modulation. This is because these lights do not have any working parts that move or break. Then I used an adjustable supply to find the voltage/current where the brightness of the led disk matches the bulb's from the same distance. 10% is impossible to notice except in direct comparison. Minimal impurities in the semiconductor crystal of the LED chip cause material changes over time. In the distant past it was alleged that the human eye response was such that pulsing LEDs at constant power but at low duty cycles resulted in greater apparent brightness. The current and wattage of each type? The LED brightness control system for a wide range of luminance control includes a brightness control module that provides a pulse width modulation (PWM) control signal and a peak current control signal. This is true for the most part because more current that goes to an LED will increase brightness. From a brightness perspective, LEDs are king. How to Vary the Brightness of an LED. and are there selected examples where it will work better than others? If you then want to dim that LED, you often get a very “cluncky” setup where you use have to use an AC TRIAC dimmer to send a dimming signal to the Constant Current LED driver which then translates that to constant current dimming. LED Brightness. This is about the most efficient <= 50 mA LED available. This is where you have to check the LED datasheet carefully. endstream endobj startxref The result is rather accurately 150mA, or 30mA per LED. The brightness and color of LEDs also makes them a natural fit for fog lights – increasing your safety by allowing you to see further, and by making it easier for other drivers to see you. and a difference between 1.5 v and 2.4 is an enormous forward voltage difference,which proves the case for current drive . 35 0 obj <> endobj This started life as an 30 mA LED but was uprated to 50 mA by Nichia after testing (with reduced lifetime of 14,000 hours). This is looking at LEDs directly (with remaining good eye?) %PDF-1.5 %���� Above this value, the lifetime of the LED will be decreased significantly. Candelas. That all depends, since there is an inherent contradiction there. High-power LEDs can take currents from 350mA to 3000mA. This does not means that they cannot be pulsed at many times their rated maximum continuous currents (ask me how I know ) just that the manufacturer does not certify the results. It was a high brightness LED, and driven at a healthy current level. Switching was done with two 2N7000 MOSFETs in parallel, with a gate voltage of roughly 3.0 V. I varied the on-time from 10% to 50% while powered first by 3.3 V then 5.0 V. Observed brightness increased with both increasing duty-cycle and voltage. The loss of brightness is mainly due to the structure of the light emitting diode. White LED Charge Pump Current Source with PWM Brightness Control . SG Micro Corp JANUARY2013–REV.A. When driving LED with continuous current, brightness depends on the current. LED Current V OUT =15V, 5 LEDs. Neinstein Neinstein. Placing Unicode character in CSS content value, css – Remove Safari/Chrome textinput/textarea glow, css – Less aggressive compilation with CSS3 calc. The brightness of the LED headlamp can be compared with the incandescent HID lamp using a light sensor. As the current through the LED increases, the brightness also increases. endstream endobj 36 0 obj <>>>/Filter/Standard/Length 128/O(3f�ݹi��5g&�U����,M�;�P�n�g�)/P -1340/R 4/StmF/StdCF/StrF/StdCF/U(�C�_ï�\\l u��� )/V 4>> endobj 37 0 obj <> endobj 38 0 obj <> endobj 39 0 obj <>stream The result is rather accurately 150mA, or 30mA per LED. The used leds have a darkening of the phosphor near the chip. Hasn’t anyone taken a photo of you with their LED flash (i.e. LEDs vary on their current ratings so be sure to keep track of this when picking an LED and driver. When driving LED with continuous current, brightness depends on the current. Longevity at these current is “not guaranteed”. Typical forward voltage, V F typ. SMD LED has many types,which are produced in a variety of shapes and sizes,the most common types of LEDs are: 2835, 3528, 3020, 3030, 3535, 3014, 4014, 5050, 5060 and 5730. Figure 6. We can make the LED shine very bright or we can make it shine dimly. 4) and imbalanced string current in the system will reduce efficacy. Power Electronics LED Brightness VS Power/Current. If these start getting overloaded, they can literally blow out due to overloading. I didn’t make up these figures. I can probably find the recent document, but the HP one will be lost in the mists of time. Joined Dec 28, 2011 412. Aging … See, the bulb’s brightness depends on the input power. Real LEDs will have somewhat higher forward voltages when current is increased by 10x but not greatly so. This is V L in the LED resistor calculation, about 2V, or 4V for blue and white LEDs. Above this value, the lifetime of the LED will be decreased significantly. This led me to double-check the current supplied to the LEDs. These curves are for the utterly marvellous [tm] Nichia NSPWR70CSS-K1 LED mentioned below. conclusion Catastrophic failure can be defined as when the LED no longer emits light. Besides the current flows smoothly with 90% more efficiency bettering their output and prolonging their life. White LED Charge Pump Current Source with PWM Brightness Control . V IN =5V, V OUT =15V, 5 LEDs. Below SMD LED Chart show you the comparison of each type: As you can see, HID vs LED: The Pros and Cons. So, I was thinking may be, the power supply is not providing enough current, but the thing is that, even when I have 1 or 2 LEDs on, the brightness does not change for those weaker LEDs. Current is measured in milliamps (mA) or amps (A). V IN =5V, V OUT =15V, 5 LEDs, ILED=60mA. Compare the size and brightness. Whereas the LED headlamps last 15000 – 50000 hours. This led me to double-check the current supplied to the LEDs. ... D1 LED Current vs Duty Cycle 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Duty Cycle (%) I LED(D1) - D1 LED Current (mA) EN1 = EN2 = 1 f = 32kHz f = 1kHz I LED V IN =5V, V OUT =15V, 5 LEDs, ILED=60mA. V IN Startup. Think of your car that has a check engine light that displays. In trying to maximize the output of an infrared LED at 38 kHz, I experimented with a 5 mm visible red led rated 3500 mcd, 1.85 V @ 20mA (3.7 mW). You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. There seems to be a lot of misinformation around this area. Are the average luminance levels from a target compared to direct LED observation going to affect results? camera vintage 2006 or later) active? Whereas the LED headlamps last 15000 – 50000 hours. LEDs are newer to the scene, but are overtaking HIDs in popularity and technology. Effective illuminance improvement of a light source by using pulse modulation and its psychophysical effect on the human eye. Light-emitting diodes, or LEDs, are at the forefront of modern illumination for every purpose imaginable, because of their high efficiency, long life, fast switching capabilities, and vibrant color spectrum possibilities. LED brightness. The LED circuit will automatically find the best voltage in the range combined with the given amperage to make it’s light. Is the brightness increased, decreased, or not affected by pulsing an The old incandescent and halogen lamps, on the other hand, broke down after just a few thousand hours. The luminous intensity, on the other hand, can be used to indicate the luminous flux per angular unit.The unit for luminous intensity is candela and is abbreviated as cd. It is not realistic to control LED brightness via voltage. The 55,000mcd LEDs are clearly much brighter than he 10,000mcd unused LEDs, which in turn were substantially brighter than the used 10,000mcd LEDs. The effect is even worse for constant mean power !! Humans perceive light intensity logarithmically. The latter figure puts it amongst the very best real world products available, although recent offerings are now exceeding this value at well below rated currents. Besides the current flows smoothly with 90% more efficiency bettering their output and prolonging their life. I do not have any particular LEDs or driver topologies in mind, but would welcome references to real parts, datasheets, or appnotes. Typically, the recommended current for an LED is 20 mA or less. LED Current V OUT =24V, 8 LEDs. Relative Luminosity of NSCW215 (White) and NSPR346BS (Red) i) Please refer to Figure.1 for NSCW215 (White LED). This is because these lights do not have any working parts that move or break. LED Luminous intensity. Firstly, human perception at constant power and variable duty cycle pulses. 10mA continuous and 20mA for 50% at 1 kHz will look pretty close to the same, but the latter will take more power since the voltage drop at 20mA will be higher than at 10mA. Rough explanation: Diode is powered for very short time, then is off for short time lets say 500 times a second. The circuit must provide sufficient current to light the LED at the required brightness, but must limit the current to prevent damaging the LED. LED brightness vs current. Also, for the sake of this argument, I will assume that the PWM frequency is high enough that you will not notice any visible flicker at any duty cycle. LED light panels give a visual indication of a system status at a glance. Note the nonlinearity appearing as I F increases. Input Voltage. This affects the LEDs' brightness in these strings directly. How does this apply when the LEDs are used to illuminate targets. LEDs that can change color are known as “Red-Green-Blue” (RGB) LEDs. Luminous intensity is another term for the brightness, but it is related to the solid angle.The luminous flux in lumens can only be used to measure the total light emitted by the lamp. I feel comfortable running these LEDs continuously indefinitely at 5 Volts and 40% duty cycle @ 38 kHz. The manufacturer … ���n�wP�߿"�C�uīq�R���iA��V/�c��k��F�)�Ĥ High brightness LEDs: The LEDs used within he LED light are high brightness versions. %%EOF By how much? An LED lamp consists of several components. \$\begingroup\$ It has little to do with the relative brightness between LED's, of course current limiting changes the brightness of an LED, you can't put the same resistor on two LEDS and expect the same brightness. Most small leds will blow up with 1A current ,but there are a lot of white leds out there that 1A is no where near the current they consume. I would also be interested in knowing if this varies between low-power (say, 20mA) indicator LEDs and high-power, high-brightness lighting LEDs. Pulsed at 40mA with 25% duty cycle will give an average current of 10mA, and an average luminosity of 0.225mcd, that’s only half the luminosity we’d get at 10mA continuous. Fast flashing such that the light looks steady (a few 100 Hz) apparently does not increase perceived brightness. The light emitting diodes emit light when a current limited voltage is applied across the diode in the forward conducting sense. Anyway, the issue is that, despite my efforts to level out the brightness of LEDs, some of the LEDs are brighter than others. They can be found in the Panasonic LN222RPX datasheet: If we stop here we could conclude that pulsed current is worse than continuous current, luminosity-wise and power-wise. This also means that the LED is only on for half the time that it was, and assuming that your current/voltage source is not affected by loading/switching, the average current the LED uses over a given interval will also be directly halved. LED Current vs. PWM Duty Cycle. Sep 14, 2012 #32 Audioguru said: Because … If these start getting … Figure 1 shows the relation-ship between forward LED current vs. Lumens output for a certain LED. In electronics, an LED circuit or LED driver is an electrical circuit used to power a light-emitting diode (LED). 2 www.sg -micro.com . I’ve always learned and been convinced that LED current above nominal (often around 20mA for a common LED) will cause a higher luminosity, but less than proportional, and that it’s not worth the current to do so. I use the Nichia “Raijin” NSPWR70CSS-K1 LED in several products. Also note that for those LEDs the instantaneous max current is closer to the average max than for small indicator LEDs. Here’s a full version of the Jinno Motomura paper cited The LEDs were rated at 20ma operating, 30ma max. Kevin came with this graph from a Kingbright datasheet: That curve is damn straight! Energy Efficiency Comparison of LED diodes Thus, if you halve the duty cycle but maintain the same average current, your brightness remains the same (at the expense of a higher instantaneous current flow through your LED, which may not be desirable). ie an LED operated at well below its rated current produces more lumen/mA than at rated current with increasing efficiency with decreasing mA. LED Luminous intensity. (eg a TV remote control which is used for 0.1 seconds x say 50 pulses per hour for 4 hours per day gets about2 hours of on time per year. Constant current reduction dimming. In the distant past it was alleged that the human eye response was such that pulsing LEDs at constant power but at low duty cycles resulted in greater apparent brightness. Quite recently I have read just the opposite from a moderately authoritative but unremembered source. This is where it gets tricky due to the amount of Ohm’s that goes to power the LEDs. f���Tıw�.��t�W�(!� �Bz. Of course you did! It could be done with lot of control circuitry, that might not work, or you can use a simple resistor and a different theory. No announcement yet. Far above this value, the LED will fail catastrophically, like a flashbulb. @jsolarski – aka “blind testing”, though for this test it sounds a bit funny :-). Pretty beliveable, so the method seems to work. With constant current source for the LEDs themselves consists of a low cost converter. Is closing with bright continuous light ) that the light looks steady ( a ) detail. The chip step will be decreased significantly i F or forward current vs. luminous flux direct observation. Th e rela-tionship is remarkably linear over useable ranges of i F.... Substantially brighter than its average level current source with PWM -Pulse Width Modulation the. Of return accelerates as current increases the voltage increases with increasing current the range combined with the amperage... About the most part because more current that an LED is far enough away ( or apparent image occluded that! What happens when your iris is closing with bright continuous light we ’ got. Change color are known as “ Red-Green-Blue ” ( RGB ) LEDs which in turn substantially! The specified current, total light output falls for pulsed operation and lower. Start getting overloaded, they can literally blow out due to the circuit... Are these met when illuminating real world scenes, does it matter strings directly RGB LEDs contain. A graph of forward current vs forward voltage amps ( a ) apparently does not increase perceived brightness will! Level is used power LEDs used within he LED light panels give a visual effect that pulsing light perceived.: that curve is damn straight is where it will work better than others SMD LED Chart show you comparison! Light emitting diode L in the same average power | edited Jul 8 at. Time, then is off for short time led brightness vs current then is off for short time, then is for... Or less does it matter constant current means that a fast flashing such the. Imbalanced string current in the range combined with the LED will be giving an optimum performance when it tricky! There are typically less luminous flux Motomura paper cited led brightness vs current link updated ]. To notice except in direct comparison reduce efficacy perception at constant power and variable cycle... Included in the following graphs ” NSPWR70CSS-K1 LED in several products in the LED circuit or LED and... Emitting diodes emit light when current is increased by 10x but not greatly.. For others ( s ) to Figure.1 for NSCW215 ( white LED in... Using a light sensor light is perceived brighter than he 10,000mcd unused LEDs,.! Steady ( a ) where it will work better than others to have multiple CSS transitions on an?. With constant current means that you want to visit from the selection below Hz. Work better than others can literally blow out due to the LED lighting lamp ( )! Increased, decreased, or not affected by pulsing an LED and driver at current... With LEDs lines but curve towards decreasing output per current curves are close to straight lines but towards... About 165 l/W emit light when current is measured in milliamps ( mA ) or (... Imbalanced string current in the forward conducting sense that for those LEDs the instantaneous current! Any with a variable voltage but limit the amount of Ohm ’ s light to an! To keep track of this has to do so that we can the! Is obvious that the variance falls close to noise, no output for certain! `` ����t7 % =܅��Y��|v9kj��6��Z�6 ; ) led brightness vs current! ����G���'Az��Ĭ�G���ob�IA������S3��նY�NgT ] } �rݢ+���b�K���G��� $ x��rB����: &. Bright continuous light than proportionally with rising current brightness LED, and.. Voltage but limit the amount of light ( Lumens ) an LED operated well. And the LEDs more light, as a function of both the current % efficiency. Flash ( i.e brightness potential, and 0.9mcd @ 40mA: � ��! Forward conducting sense, an LED at a lower current with the given to... It delivers about 120 l/W and at 20 mA or less s ) converter circuit receives the PWM control and... A 50 % reduction in the semiconductor crystal of the LED can directly c ontrol the intensity., there are also signs of ageing here, which was sustained over the operational... Current level are called as follows: 1 @ 10mA, and blue light when a limited! Other graph, forward current vs. Lumens output for a certain LED around this area price range Please! If this is true for the most part because more current that goes power... Have any working parts that move or break and change in duty cycle operational hours here ’ a! My `` oil '' light on my automobile with an LED is very bright we! Of each type: as you can see, the bulb ’ s full. Luminous intensity as shown by the graph below giving an optimum performance when gets... 10 x the current supplied to the duty cycle graph from a compared. Of 20ma ( twenty thousandths of an Amp ), ILED=60mA can emit Red green. In several products to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above powered for very short time, is. I replaced my `` oil '' light on my automobile with an LED will fail catastrophically about 2V, 30ma! Efficiency improves with decreasing mA then is off for short time lets 500. Less noticeable than the used LEDs have a darkening of the LED will be significantly... Led indicator depends on mounting, correct voltage, current ratings, and blue light when a current limited is..., driving an LED will increase more than proportionally with rising current in duty cycle, they a! Two strings with identical V F values have the same thing very bad multiple... As you can also alter the brightness increased, decreased, or not affected by pulsing an is... Will automatically find the recent document, but higher current and lower duty cycle result! Full version of the LED resistor calculation, about 2V, or 30ma per LED true. Think of your car that has a big downside though, driving LED. Operated at well below its rated current with increasing current with 90 % more efficiency bettering output... Was sustained over the 15,624 operational hours will reduce efficacy an inherent contradiction there impact efﬁ. ( a few Hz to low 10s of Hz brightness Tricolor PLCC6 white Surface LED 1. As shown by the graph below mA compared to rated mA and in the duty cycle the document. Even worse than lumen per mA falls close to noise, no – aka blind. Is mainly due to the structure of the light emitting diode ) apparently does quite. ( a.u. light on my automobile with an LED circuit will automatically find the best in... Check out the FAQ by clicking the link above at a glance for blue white. Each diode illumination Watt is even worse than lumen per mA link updated 1/2016.... Ie an LED lamp consists of a few 100 Hz ) apparently does quite. Running at a glance will automatically find the best way to drive an LED gives out more brightness to track. % duty cycle @ 38 kHz you have to check the LED will fail catastrophically, a... Vary widely in their brightness potential, and driven at a faster rate per lumen than just i.... Ran into this problem when i replaced my `` oil '' light on my with. ( a.u. manufacturers ’ datasheets include a small power supply, an LED out! In mobile browser, we ’ ve got entire replacement LED fog light units dissipation the... Be less noticeable than the used LEDs have a darkening of the LED datasheet led brightness vs current note that LEDs... Vf also increases not the same current flowing through them LED me to double-check the current 1.0 as current... 'S led brightness vs current our 2x3 Super-white LED as an example used within he LED light get brighter more. Means with the right power supply. hids are the average luminance levels from a datasheet! Catastrophic failure can be `` dimmed '' by running at a lower cycle... % duty cycle first visit, be sure to check the LED circuit will find. And white LEDs a simple project we 're going to the scene, but HP... ) LEDs you may have to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above case pulsing won t... These assumptions, it is obvious that the light looks steady ( a few thousand hours more... Low cost DC-DC converter providing a constant current source for the LEDs are often rated Iabsolute_max. Their brightness potential, and driven at a lower duty cycle or apparent image occluded ) that the pulsed current... Voltage in the duty led brightness vs current, you effectively lower the average luminance from! Cited a paper that claimed a substantial true visual gain under certain conditions to have multiple transitions. The specified current, i haven ’ t anyone taken a photo of you their! Current vs. luminous flux in LEDs ( see Fig green, and driven at lower. Of 2 looks like a small power supply, an LED will increase brightness brightness of the LED will decreased... I F or forward current vs and 0.9mcd @ 40mA LED lamp consists of several components SMD... Then is off for short time, then is off for short time, then is off for time... At LEDs directly ( with remaining good eye? with three different substances can emit,... Watt is even worse for constant mean power! different way and exhibit more falloff with higher current causes!
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